Alat kapak genggam Asia Tenggara: Isu dan perdebatan

Noridayu Bakry, Jeffrey Abdullah, Mokhtar Saidin


Kapak genggam merupakan salah satu alat yang dikaitkan dengan kebudayaan Acheulean. Kebudayaan ini dikatakan berkembang daripada kebudayaan litik yang dikenali sebagai kebudayaan Oldowan yang dicirikan oleh alat tetak-menetak (chopper-chopping tools). Walau bagaimanapun, kebanyakan pengkaji lalu berpendapat bahawa kebudayaan Acheulean ini dikatakan hanya wujud di sesetengah kawasan sahaja iaitu di Afrika, Eropah, Barat Daya Asia dan sebahagian kawasan Asia. Manakala, di bahagian Asia Tenggara, dan Asia Timur pula didakwa mempunyai perkembangan teknologi litik yang dikatakan berbeza berbanding dengan kawasan-kawasan lain. Ia dikatakan berbeza disebabkan kawasan ini mempunyai perkembangan teknologi yang terencat iaitu tidak menghasilkan alat kapak genggam, dan hanya dicirikan oleh alat penetak dan repehan sahaja (sebelum ini dikenali sebagai alat tetak-menetak). Oleh hal sedemikian penemuan kapak genggam di Asia Tenggara sejak 1938 lagi telah menjadi isu dan perdebatan penting samada alat kapak genggam yang ditemui di rantau ini adalah sama atau tidak dengan kapak genggam di kawasan-kawasan lain dunia. 

Kata kunci: kapak genggam, kebudayaan Acheulean, kebudayaan Oldowan, Asia Tenggara



Handaxe is one of the tools that is associated with Acheulean culture. This culture evolved from a political culture known as the Oldowan culture which is characterized by a chopper-chopping tools. However, most researchers thought that the Acheulean culture exist only in certain areas, such as in Africa, Europe, Southwest Asia and some parts in Asia. Meanwhile, in Southeast Asia as well as East Asia had been claimed to have a different development of technology compared with other regions. The area has a retarded development of technology because the area do not produce any handaxes but this area is only characterized by the findings of chopper and flake tools (previously known as chopper-chopping tools. The discovery of the handaxe in Southeast Asia since 1938 has become an important issue and debate, whether the handaxe found in this region are similar to the other area in this world or not. 

Keyword: handaxe, Acheulean culture, Oldowan culture, Southeast Asia

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